The history of physical training and fitness dates back to Ancient Greece. Hippocrates was the one who first explained what weight training was all about when he wrote, “he who uses this develops, and he who does not use it is wasting his time.
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INTRODUCTION AND APPROACH TO THE THEME
To try to understand Physical Activity oriented to health, we must situate ourselves like the human species; it is there that we must identify its biological development and its primary cultural attitude. They are followed at the beginning as a biologically fit man, regardless of the influences of the environment and socio-cultural dimensions, responsible for future differentiation. According to man
Physical Preparation requires physical effort, unlike intellectual Preparation.
Physical Preparation define as “the part of sports training that seeks to develop the functional potential (understood as the “a priori” work capacity of an organism) of the athlete and their physical qualities.”
Why is Physical Preparation necessary?
- Improvement of the sports spectacle.
- Modern sport, mainly elite sport, implies that the athlete is an athlete.
- It facilitates the learning and development of the technical movements required by this sport.
- It favours specific technical and tactical work (for example, marking the man, pressing, which requires physical Preparation). There is a tendency to integrate the physical, tactical, and technical components in training.
- Practical experience advises proper physical Preparation. It is proven that when training improves performance.
Types of Physical Preparation.
Currently, there are two types of physical Preparation;
General Physical Preparation.
This type of Preparation seeks a series of objectives;
Multilateral development of all physical qualities and the development of each subtype of each marker.
Achieve good physical work capacity.
In general physical Preparation, use available exercise (not practised in the sports speciality), other sports, and, as far as possible, global exercises involving many muscles, organs, systems, etc., to strengthen the weak parts of the athlete. (for example, non-dominant extremities
More specifically, we can define the purposes of the work of general physical Preparation as follows;
Compensation and recovery factor (by practising another sport, you “disconnect” psychologically. For example, Luis Fernández’s Athletic de Bilbao went skiing for Christmas. They complete this type of work when there is no competition.
- Increase the ability to tolerate physical workloads. It Improves work capacity.
- Conditional and coordinative skills are involved in an expansion of motor skills
- An excellent general physical preparation level allows work at higher intensities and improves the subsequent special physical Preparation’s work capacity.
Special Physical Preparation.
The athlete provides a physical, physiological, and technological development of his event or sport. For some authors, this type of physical Preparation can describe as specific. It aims to develop the physical qualities and technical patterns necessary in events or sports, whether particular or particular.
Fitness in the Mediterranean Region
Ancient Greece is probably the most prominent figure in the history of fitness. This training included combat drills and practices in conjunction with competitive sports games, which perhaps had ball sports such as episkyros.
Fitness in the European Region
While medieval European culture did not specifically advocate exercise for physical fitness, its reasonably widespread practice of various ball sports serves as an early example of one of the most popular forms of exercise in modern times.
Fitness in the Roman Civilization
During its reign of defeat and expansion, the Roman Empire ordered all its citizens to uphold an excellent physical state of military service. Everybody between 17 and 60 was eligible for the current and trained in running, marching, jumping, discus, and javelin throwing.
Fitness during the Middle Ages and the Late Middle Ages
Like early man, the barbarian tribes of northern Europe depended on physical fitness to survive. Their lifestyle consisted of hunting and assembly food, and tending livestock. Therefore, contempt the cultural and intellectual setbacks that occurred with the fall of the Roman Empire, physical fitness did experience a renaissance during the Middle and Dark Ages.
Fitness during the Colonial Period of America
The hardships of colonial life ensured that early settlers regularly engaged in physical activity to survive. Colonial America was still an underdeveloped country, and its people spent much of their time and energy ploughing the land for crops, foraging for food, and herding cattle.
Fitness during the National Period of America
The attention will not be strong” (Personal Fitness Professional 2001). Individuals like JC Warren and Catherine Beecher also advocated regular exercise, especially for women. And indeed, Beecher’s programs, which mixed callisthenics with music, bore a striking resemblance to modern “aerobics.” However, in general, little emphasis was placed on physical education.
The origin of physical training
The history of physical training has its origins in prehistory, when human beings used their bodies to find food, safety, and, above all, to survive.
This discipline has been part of many times and cultures, for example, Classical Greece, Rome, and the Visigoth period.
It has come a long way to become what it is today: modern physical education.
Modern physical education
Modern physical education has its origins in the 19th century in both Switzerland and Germany. The sports we quote below are responsible for their start: jumping, racing, outdoor fighting, swimming, balance, dance, fencing, climbing, horse riding and running, etc.
The health benefits of physical education
Physical education has many benefits. We can highlight that this activity can reduce the risk of suffering from some heart diseases and even some types of cancer such as colon cancer.
In addition, another benefit is that it helps control overweight. Today is vital because we live in a society where more and more people suffer from this disease.
Finally, performing physical activities strengthens bones and muscles, thus improving people’s capacity.
Benefits of physical education linked to psychology
Carrying out physical activities helps improve people’s state of mind and release tension, so physical education is perfect for avoiding depression.
Benefits of physical education in childhood and adolescence
Physical education has many benefits both in childhood and adolescence. For this reason, it is one of the compulsory subjects taught in schools, making average like any other.
Here are some of the main benefits:
- It helps children and adolescents to develop.
- Control obesity at a vital stage for children and adolescents.
- Its give strengthens the bone structure of children and young
- It helps children and young people interact with each other, a fundamental aspect of their development.
What is physical Preparation for athletes?
Physical Preparation is crucial for anyone who does any sport, whether they are high-performance athletes or amateur athletes. Of course, not everyone should train in the same way, which is why those in charge of preparing athletes must adapt physical Preparation to each case.
What is physical Preparation during the preseason?
The physical Preparation carried out during the preseason is key to minimizing the possibility of mishaps and guaranteeing a constant rhythm of competition throughout the season.
Engaging in regular physical activity may produce perfections in an individual’s physical health, cognitive performance, and psychological well-being. Physical benefits include but are not limited to reduced risk for diseases and improvements in physical functioning, fitness, and overall quality of life.